General Information

Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery Concepts

In medicine, there is the surgical specialty known as Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, which requires specific qualifications, which has two aspects:

- Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, which treats patients requiring reconstruction, repair of certain coverage and support structures, congenital malformations, and sequelae of processes acquired by trauma or tumors, in any area of the body. Therefore shares the anatomical land with other surgical specialties.
Mobilization and transfer of tissues as well as the structural modification and / or aesthetics of certain anatomical regions, characterized the work of plastic surgeon.

- Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, which treats healthy patients seeking cosmetic enhancement of certain areas of your body considered unsightly or upgradable.

Cosmetic Surgery includes surgical treatments that are intended to improve or restore the appearance while maintaining or improving normal functionality.

Cosmetic surgery is an elective surgery (the patient may choose surgery or not). Once informed of the intervention, the patient should put all the "potential benefits of surgery" on one side of the balance and all the "potential drawbacks of surgery" on the other side of the scale. The choice must be made by the patient himself, without being influenced by anything or nobody.
Currently, the Aesthetic Surgery offers, to both sexes, a high degree of satisfaction with very wide margins of safety.

The naturalness of the results is a primary objective in all interventions. The extent of the defect, the quality of the skin, the anatomical proportions and body composition must be evaluated together.

Any treatment must be carefully prepared and planned, so it is necessary to conduct a preliminary study. A medical history is essential. If surgery is going to be performed, blood tests, radiological tests, cardiovascular evaluation and photographs are carried out.

Most of the interventions can be done under local or regional anesthesia, which allows shorten or eliminate periods of income and expenses, offering at the same time, maximum safety.

Each individual case is different, so the choice of surgical technique must be done by the surgeon who will discuss with patient the pros and cons of each intervention.

Dr. José Luis Acosta Collado will personally inform you all the details of the whole process of treatment. If you need additional information, do not hesitate to apply at any time.

The rules of the clinics and hospitals where operations are performed recommend that the patient go with a companion throughout the period of admission (no matter the time).

Duties of surgeon and patient

Plastic Surgeon's duties are
· Establish an appropriate indication to solve the problem that affects the patient, making sure that the patient's expectations are realistic,

· Ensure that the patient is a healthy person (preoperative test)

· Inform the "pros and cons" (including potential risks) of the intervention,

· Minimize, using the most advanced surgical techniques, the possibility of complications,

· Improve the appearance with a durable and natural result.
Patient duties are:
· Request the surgeon all the information it deems necessary to freely decide whether to have surgery.

· Follow carefully the pre-operative and post-operative orders, to avoid the appearance of possible complications.

· Contact the surgeon if you have any doubts about evolution or treatment.

Anatomical area

Cosmetic Surgery, unlike other medical and surgical specialties (heart surgery, ophthalmology, etc. ...), has an anatomical area not limited to a particular organ or area, i.e., the treated area in Cosmetic Surgery can be located anywhere on the body: there are cosmetic surgery to improve extremities (arms, hands, legs), trunk (breast, back or abdomen) and head (face, nose, ears, eyes, ...) and involves different classes of tissue or tissue component (skin, fat, muscle and bone).

The cosmetic surgeon should know how to treat any kind of tissue (skin, fat, muscle, cartilage, bone ...), which requires extensive anatomical knowledge of the whole body and a great understanding of the scarring ability of different tissue components.

Furthermore, once operated, the patient will continue the aging process; the duration of the results achieved by an intervention vary from person to person, depending on multiple factors.

We say "the surgeon makes the sutures and the patient makes the scar."

Stability and outcome prediction

Unlike a sculptor who work inert materials such as stone or wood obtaining permanent and unalterable result, the surgeon operate on living tissue and the scarring or postoperative evolution may modify or alter the outcome.

During the post-operative of an intervention, the body reacts with edema, swelling, bruising, which form part of the normal healing process and wound healing.

Motivation and realistic expectations

The motivation for a surgery should be wanting to improve the image or appearance to please himself. An exaggerated desire to please others may mask deeper psychological problems or problems with romantic relationships; in these cases, although objectively good results has been achieved, the underlying desire of the patient (avoid a breakup, etc.) cannot be achieved so after surgery patient can show their displeasure no matter that a good result have been obtained.

There are more serious cases, such as Dysmorphophobia, in which patients are unpleasant themselves; and once the physical concern is solved by plastic surgery, the patient come out with another unpleasant area, and so on. The patient would never be pleased because the problem is not to cosmetic surgery, but of Psychiatry.

Expectations (what the patient expects of the intervention) should be logical and be real, for example, improving an area of the body (nose, face, breasts, ...) do not want to say that the rest of the body will rejuvenate 15 years or that a nose or a breast will be exactly like a film actress in particular. Most of the time this cannot objectively be possible to obtain.

The cosmetic surgeon should be able to understand the patient's psychological scheme, and if there is any doubt, should refuse to intervene and refer the patient to a psychological examination preoperatively.

About scars

The magic does not exist: In Cosmetic Surgery there are scars, but depending on the location and type of suture technique used, the scars can be hidden and in some cases may go completely unnoticed.

In young people, scars are often more apparent, however, in older people, a scar is usually more difficult to see.

Prevention of complications

It is very important to pay full attention to each and every one of the phases of treatment (verification of the results of the preoperative evaluation, monitoring of the pre-operative and post-operative standards by trained personnel, use of appropriate facilities, and permanent communication between the patient and the surgical team, etc. ...) in order to minimize the occurrence of complications.

Most common complications in Cosmetic Surgery

· Bleeding or hematoma: is important to know if a patient has arterial hypertension and avoid overexertion (defecation or vomiting) immediately after surgery, and although it is common to use suction drains or dressings cold on eyes during the first post-operative hours, if indeed a hematoma is formed, it may be necessary to evacuate it or emptying by puncture, aspiration or washing.

· Infection: Infection after surgery is very rare because of the use of antibiotics during and after surgery. If infection occurs they may be required additional treatments.

Loss of vitality tissue or skin necrosis: to ensure perfect blood supply under any circumstances the patient must not smoke at least one month before and after any surgery or sleeping with the neck flexed after Cervical Lifting interventions, as this may compromise the irrigation and the vitality of the skin.

Loss of feeling or mobility in any area: which are due to small manipulations of nerves that normally recover after a few days or weeks.

· Excessive scarring: which may require additional treatment, such as the revision of a part of the scar.

· Allergic to medicines (iodine, etc. ...) or to tape reactions.

· Intolerance to stitches: Although the material used in the manufacture of sutures have been used a million times and usually is well accepted by the human body, there is a possibility that in a given patient, his body makes a small reaction of "foreign body" and expel store stitch. If this were to occur, it could result in more apparent scar, which can subsequently be treated by surgical revision.

· Seroma: is a collection of fluid from the healing process, which can be reabsorbed by itself, or may require emptying by means of hypodermic needle puncture or drains.
Dr. José Luis Acosta Collado will personally explain all the possible complications that may arise after the intervention, which will be detailed on the informed consent that the patient must read and sign before the operation.

Recommendations for patients living outside the city

For any type of surgical procedures is good and necessary to consider some steps, there are some suggestions:

  • Traveling with cool and smooth clothes if necessary clothing of cotton according to temperature and / or the procedure to be performed, spacious blouse (open or button forward) , not wear tight fitting clothing like casual wear.
  • Take iron tablets daily to have good level of hemoglobin.
  • Do not take pills to lower weight six weeks before the procedure.
  • If you smoke stop smoking six weeks before, because it alters the circulation of tissues.
  • If you take pills for birth control, hormones, aspirin and anti-inflammatories, suspend six weeks before the procedure.

NOTE: Take into account that depending on the surgery recovery period would be able to travel between 15 to 21 days or so.